Geography (Greek Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαία), meaning “Earth”, and graphein (γράφειν) meaning “to describe” or “to write”) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be “to describe or write about the Earth”. The first person to use the word “geography” was Eratosthenes (275-195 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences.
Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities — not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As “the bridge between the human and physical sciences,” geography is divided into two main branches — human geography and physical geography.